How to modify hosts file on local computer?

Easily edit the host file on Windows, Mac, linux

Easily edit the host file on Windows, Mac, Linux

How to modify hosts file on local computer?

The hosts file is a computer file used by an operating system to map hostnames to IP addresses.

The hosts file is a plain text file, and is conventionally named hosts. Originally a HOSTS.TXT file and maintained centrally by Stanford Research Institute for the ARPANET, the hosts file predates the Domain Name System, which was first described in 1983 and implemented in 1984.

Prior to DNS, the hosts file was manually edited and served as a table of accessible hosts. It was due the size of the growing Internet and coincident growth of the hosts table that the more robust DNS was embraced and the hosts file supplanted.

Editing your hosts file will allow you to override the DNS for a domain, on that particular machine.

Can be used to test your site without the test link, prior to going live with SSL, verify an alias site works prior to DNS changes, or for other DNS related reasons.

This causes your local machine only to look directly at the IP specified.

Your hosts file will need to have two entries added that will contain the IP address you want the site to resolve to and the address. Adding the below two lines for example will point and to our current PHP5-ITK (“Refreshed” PHP5) cluster:  localhost loopback
::1        localhost


Below is how to locate and edit the hosts file on several OS platforms. Once the proper domain information is added you will save the file and your system will begin resolving to the specified IP. Once testing is finished these entries should be removed.



  • Windows 8
  • Vista and Windows 7
  • Windows NT/2000/XP
  • Linux
  • Mac OSX 10.0 – 10.1.5
  • Mac OSX 10.6 – 10.8

local host file

local host file

Windows 8

Editing a HOSTS File in Windows 8

Here is what you can do in order to edit the HOSTS file on Windows 8.

  • Copy the HOSTS file from the  C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc folder to your Desktop.
  • Open the copy from your Desktop in Notepad, and make all necessary changes.

Or directly open file location from NotePad or other PlainText editor like


Windows Vista and Windows 7

Vista and Windows 7 use User Account Control (UAC) so Notepad must be run as Administrator.

1. Click Start -> All Programs -> Accessories

2. Right click Notepad and select Run as administrator

3. Click Continue on the “Windows needs your permission” UAC window.

4. When Notepad opens Click File -> Open

5. In the filename field type C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\hosts

6. Click Open



Windows NT/2000/XP

1. Click Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Notepad

2. Click File -> Open

3. In the filename field type C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\hosts

4. Click Open



1. Open a terminal window

2. Type sudo nano /etc/hosts (you can substitute any text editor)

3. Enter your password



Mac OS X 10.0 – 10.1.5

1. Open /Applications/Utilities/NetInfo Manager.

2. To allow editing the NetInfo database, click the padlock in the lower left corner of the window.

3. Enter your Admin password and click OK

4. In the second column of the browser view, select the node named “machines.” You will see entries for -DHCP-, broadcasthost, and localhost in the third column.

5. The quickest way to create a new entry is to duplicate an existing one. So select the “localhost” item in the third column.

6. Choose Duplicate from the Edit menu. A confirmation alert appears.

7. Click Duplicate. A new entry called “localhost copy” appears, and its properties are shown below the browser view.

8. Double-click the value of the ip_address property and enter the IP address of the other computer.

9. Double-click the value of the name property and enter the hostname you want for the other computer.

10. Click the serves property and choose Delete from the Edit menu.

11. Choose Save from the File menu. A confirmation alert appears.

12. Click Update this copy.

13. Repeat steps 6 through 12 for each additional host entry you wish to add.

14. Choose Quit from the NetInfo Manager menu. You do not need to restart the computer.


Mac OS X 10.6 – 10.1.8

1. Open Applications > Utilities > Terminal.

2. Open the hosts file by typing the following in the Terminal window:

sudo nano /private/etc/hosts

Type your user password when prompted

3. Edit the Host File,The hosts file contains some comments (lines starting with the # symbol), as well as some default hostname mappings (e.g. – local host). Append your new mappings underneath the default ones.

4. Save the Host File, When done editing the hosts file, press Control+x to save the file.

5. Make your changes take effect by flushing the DNS cache with the following command:

$ dscacheutil -flushcache

6. New mappings should now take effect.



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❶Copy ❷Paste ❸Be Happy ★ Special Characters for Social Media are ♨HOT!☺

keyboard special characters💰 Special Characters Map for use on Twitter, FaceBook, Blogs and Social Media Sites

★ Free character maps online where you can copy and paste a special character from a Web page into

Here are some to get you started:

♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏ ♐ ♑ ♒ ✐ ❂ ♓ ☨ ☧ ☦ ✁ ✃ ✄ ✎ ☬ ☫ ❉ ❆ ♅ ♇ ♆ ♙ ♟ ♔ ♕ ♖ ♗ ♘ © ® ™ … ∞ ≤ ≥ « » ç ∫ µ ◊ ı ¥ € £ ƒ $ º ª ‽ ♤ ✈ ♪ ☤ ♀ ☾ ☝ ♖ ✽ ☯ ♥ ☺ ♬ ☹ ☑ ✩ ☠ ✔ ✉ ♂ ✖ ✏ ♝ ❀ ♨ ❦ ☁ ✌ ♛ ❁ ☪ ☂ ★ ✇ ♺ ☭ ☃ ☛ ♞ ✿ ☮ ♘ ✾ ☄ ☟ ✝ ☼ ☚ ♟ ✺ ☥ ✂ ✍ ♕ ✵ ☉ ☇ ☈ ☡ ✠ ☊ ☋ ☌ ☍ ♁ ✇ ☢ ☣ ✣ ✡ ☞ ☜ ✜ ✛ ❥ ♗ ♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ Ω ≈ * § ∆ ¬ † & æ π ¡ ¿ ø å ∂ • ¶ œ Æ ß ÷ ‰ √ ª % ♠ ☎ ☻ ♫ ☒ ˚ ¯ º ‽ ≠ ˆ ˜ ˘ ∑ ƒ

❄ Add Special Characters in Twitter With the Windows Character Map

1. Click Start, open your list of All Programs, and open the Accessories folder. Navigate to System Tools and open the Character Map program.

2. Select a font from the list.

3. Check the Advanced view box.

4. In the Character set list, select Unicode.

5. In the Group by list, select All to browse all available characters by font, or select Unicode Subrange to browse characters by category.

6. Collect characters by highlighting them and clicking Select. When you are finished collecting, click Copy to copy the characters to the clipboard. You can now paste them into your message.
Use Facebook Emoticons

Here is the complete list of Facebook Chat emoticons and what character combinations create them. Note that these currently only work in Facebook Chat and will not display correctly in Facebook status updates or comments.

Smile :-) :) :] =)

Frown :-( :( :[ =(

Tongue :-P :P :-p :p =P

Grin :-D :D =D

Gasp :-O :O :-o :o

Wink ;-) ;)

Glasses 8-) 8) B-) B)

Sunglasses 8-| 8| B-| B|

Grumpy >:( >:-(

Unsure :/ :-/ :\ :-\

Cry :'(

Devil 3:) 3:-)

Angel O:) O:-)

Kiss :-* :*

Heart :O >:-O >:o >:-o

Pacman :v

Curly Lips :3

Robot :|]

Chris Putnam :putnam:

Shark (^^^)

Penguin <(“)

42 :42:

Using Emoticons in Gmail, Gchat, and Other Google Services

To unlock all available emoticons in Gmail:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Labs.

2. Type emoji in the Search for labs box.

3. Enable Extra Emoji and click Save Changes. Enable the Extra Emoji option in Google Labs.

4. When composing a message, click the Insert Emoticon symbol to browse. Click any symbol to insert it into your message.

You must be in rich formatting mode to insert emoticons. In GChat, some emoticons are easy to select, but others are hidden:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Mail Settings.

2. In the Chat tab, select Emoticons on at the bottom. Click Save Changes. Switch on emoticons in the Chat tab.

3. Open a new chat window and click the emoticon in the corner to browse GChat emoticons. Nice job!

One final tidbit: The emoticons listed in the GChat window aren’t all that are available.

Here is a top-secret list of hidden GChat emoticons:

Devil }:-)

Moustache :{

Robot [:|]

Poo ~@~

Rock Out \m/

Monkey :(|)

Bell +/’\

Crab V.v.V Wince >.<

Broken heart

Pig :(:)

Kiss :-x

keyboard and number pad special charactersUse your number keypad (ALT + Number Pad.) for these special characters

Special characters work on Google+, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Tumblr.

☺           ALt+1

☻          ALt+2

♥            ALt+3

♦             ALt+4

♣            ALt+5

♠             ALt+6

•             ALt+7

◘            ALt+8

○             ALt+9

◙            ALt+10

♂          Alt + 11

♀          Alt + 12

♪             ALt+13

♫            ALt+14

☼           ALt+15

░            ALt+176

▒            ALt+177

▓            ALt+178

│             ALt+179

┤            ALt+180

╡            ALt+181

╢            ALt+182

╖            ALt+183

╕            ALt+184

╣            ALt+185

║            ALt+186

╗            ALt+187

╝            ALt+188

╜            ALt+189

╛            ALt+190

┐             ALt+191

└             ALt+192

┴            ALt+193

┬            ALt+194

├            ALt+195

─             ALt+196

┼            ALt+197

╞            ALt+198

╟            ALt+199

╚            ALt+200

╔            ALt+201

╩            ALt+202

╦            ALt+203

╠            ALt+204

═            ALt+205

╬            ALt+206

╧            ALt+207

╨            ALt+208

╤            ALt+209

╥            ALt+210

╙            ALt+211

╘            ALt+212

╒            ALt+213

╓            ALt+214

╫            ALt+215

╪            ALt+216

┘             ALt+217

┌             ALt+218

Special Characters in HTML

left single quote &lsquo;
right single quote &rsquo;
single low-9 quote &sbquo;
left double quote &ldquo;
right double quote &rdquo;
double low-9 quote &bdquo;
dagger &dagger;
double dagger &Dagger;
per mill sign &permil;
single left-pointing angle quote &lsaquo;
single right-pointing angle quote &rsaquo;
black spade suit &spades;
black club suit &clubs;
black heart suit &hearts;
black diamond suit &diams;
overline, = spacing overscore &oline;
leftward arrow &larr;
upward arrow &uarr;
rightward arrow &rarr;
downward arrow &darr;
trademark sign &trade;
unused &#00;-
horizontal tab
line feed
unused &#11;
exclamation mark ! !
double quotation mark &quot;
number sign # #
dollar sign $ $
percent sign % %
ampersand & &amp; &
left parenthesis ( (
right parenthesis ) )
asterisk * *
plus sign + +
comma , ,
hyphen - -
period . .
slash / &frasl; /
digits 0-9 0-
colon : :
semicolon ; ;
less-than sign < &lt; <
equals sign = =
greater-than sign > &gt; >
question mark ? ?
at sign @ @
uppercase letters A-Z A-
left square bracket [ [
backslash \ \
right square bracket ] ]
caret ^ ^
horizontal bar (underscore) _ _
grave accent ` `
lowercase letters a-z a-
left curly brace { {
vertical bar | |
right curly brace } }
tilde ~ ~
ellipses &hellip;
en dash &ndash;
em dash &mdash;
unused ˜-
nonbreaking space &nbsp;  
inverted exclamation ¡ &iexcl; ¡
cent sign ¢ &cent; ¢
pound sterling £ &pound; £
general currency sign ¤ &curren; ¤
yen sign ¥ &yen; ¥
broken vertical bar ¦ &brvbar; or &brkbar; ¦
section sign § &sect; §
umlaut ¨ &uml; or &die; ¨
copyright © &copy; ©
feminine ordinal ª &ordf; ª
left angle quote « &laquo; «
not sign ¬ &not; ¬
soft hyphen ­ &shy; ­
registered trademark ® &reg; ®
macron accent ¯ &macr; or &hibar; ¯
degree sign ° &deg; °
plus or minus ± &plusmn; ±
superscript two ² &sup2; ²
superscript three ³ &sup3; ³
acute accent ´ &acute; ´
micro sign µ &micro; µ
paragraph sign &para;
middle dot · &middot; ·
cedilla ¸ &cedil; ¸
superscript one ¹ &sup1; ¹
masculine ordinal º &ordm; º
right angle quote » &raquo; »
one-fourth ¼ &frac14; ¼
one-half ½ &frac12; ½
three-fourths ¾ &frac34; ¾
inverted question mark ¿ &iquest; ¿
uppercase A, grave accent À &Agrave; À
uppercase A, acute accent Á &Aacute; Á
uppercase A, circumflex accent  &Acirc; Â
uppercase A, tilde à &Atilde; Ã
uppercase A, umlaut Ä &Auml; Ä
uppercase A, ring Å &Aring; Å
uppercase AE Æ &AElig; Æ
uppercase C, cedilla Ç &Ccedil; Ç
uppercase E, grave accent È &Egrave; È
uppercase E, acute accent É &Eacute; É
uppercase E, circumflex accent Ê &Ecirc; Ê
uppercase E, umlaut Ë &Euml; Ë
uppercase I, grave accent Ì &Igrave; Ì
uppercase I, acute accent Í &Iacute; Í
uppercase I, circumflex accent Î &Icirc; Î
uppercase I, umlaut Ï &Iuml; Ï
uppercase Eth, Icelandic Ð &ETH; Ð
uppercase N, tilde Ñ &Ntilde; Ñ
uppercase O, grave accent Ò &Ograve; Ò
uppercase O, acute accent Ó &Oacute; Ó
uppercase O, circumflex accent Ô &Ocirc; Ô
uppercase O, tilde Õ &Otilde; Õ
uppercase O, umlaut Ö &Ouml; Ö
multiplication sign × &times; ×
uppercase O, slash Ø &Oslash; Ø
uppercase U, grave accent Ù &Ugrave; Ù
uppercase U, acute accent Ú &Uacute; Ú
uppercase U, circumflex accent Û &Ucirc; Û
uppercase U, umlaut Ü &Uuml; Ü
uppercase Y, acute accent Ý &Yacute; Ý
uppercase THORN, Icelandic Þ &THORN; Þ
lowercase sharps, German ß &szlig; ß
lowercase a, grave accent à &agrave; à
lowercase a, acute accent á &aacute; á
lowercase a, circumflex accent â &acirc; â
lowercase a, tilde ã &atilde; ã
lowercase a, umlaut ä &auml; ä
lowercase a, ring å &aring; å
lowercase ae æ &aelig; æ
lowercase c, cedilla ç &ccedil; ç
lowercase e, grave accent è &egrave; è
lowercase e, acute accent é &eacute; é
lowercase e, circumflex accent ê &ecirc; ê
lowercase e, umlaut ë &euml; ë
lowercase i, grave accent ì &igrave; ì
lowercase i, acute accent í &iacute; í
lowercase i, circumflex accent î &icirc; î
lowercase i, umlaut ï &iuml; ï
lowercase eth, Icelandic ð &eth; ð
lowercase n, tilde ñ &ntilde; ñ
lowercase o, grave accent ò &ograve; ò
lowercase o, acute accent ó &oacute; ó
lowercase o, circumflex accent ô &ocirc; ô
lowercase o, tilde õ &otilde; õ
lowercase o, umlaut ö &ouml; ö
division sign ÷ &divide; ÷
lowercase o, slash ø &oslash; ø
lowercase u, grave accent ù &ugrave; ù
lowercase u, acute accent ú &uacute; ú
lowercase u, circumflex accent û &ucirc; û
lowercase u, umlaut ü &uuml; ü
lowercase y, acute accent ý &yacute; ý
lowercase thorn, Icelandic þ &thorn; þ
lowercase y, umlaut ÿ &yuml; ÿ
Alpha &Alpha; Α
alpha &alpha; α
Beta &Beta; Β
beta &beta; β
Gamma &Gamma; Γ
gamma &gamma; γ
Delta &Delta; Δ
delta &delta; δ
Epsilon &Epsilon; Ε
epsilon &epsilon; ε
Zeta &Zeta; Ζ
zeta &zeta; ζ
Eta &Eta; Η
eta &eta; η
Theta &Theta; Θ
theta &theta; θ
Iota &Iota; Ι
iota &iota; ι
Kappa &Kappa; Κ
kappa &kappa; κ
Lambda &Lambda; Λ
lambda &lambda; λ
Mu &Mu; Μ
mu &mu; μ
Nu &Nu; Ν
nu &nu; ν
Xi &Xi; Ξ
xi &xi; ξ
Omicron &Omicron; Ο
omicron &omicron; ο
Pi &Pi; Π
pi &pi; π
Rho &Rho; Ρ
rho &rho; ρ
Sigma &Sigma; Σ
sigma &sigma; σ
Tau &Tau; Τ
tau &tau; τ
Upsilon &Upsilon; Υ
upsilon &upsilon; υ
Phi &Phi; Φ
phi &phi; φ
Chi &Chi; Χ
chi &chi; χ
Psi &Psi; Ψ
psi &psi; ψ
Omega &Omega; Ω
omega &omega; ω
password dot

All About SEO on

All About SEO on

SEO DOs and DON’Ts

  • Regularly publish original content.
  • Use a few precise categories and tags.
  • Write for human ears.
  • Build your traffic in smart, organic ways.
  • Choose simple, meaningful post slugs.
  • Create a descriptive tagline.
  • Include keywords selectively.
  • Start duplicate sites.
  • “Stuff” your site with irrelevant, broad categories, tags, or buzzwords.
  • Write with search engines in mind.
  • Purchase or exchange meaningless “backlinks.”
  • Buy into SEO fads.
  • Worry too much about SEO at the expense of writing good content!

We get a lot of questions about SEO here on, and no wonder — you work hard on your site and want to get the word out! SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization. SEO recommendations are intended to help your site rank higher and more accurately in search engines, like Google. Say you write a blog about sailboats. When someone Googles “sailboats,” how many pages of results do they have to scroll through before they see a link to your blog? The goal behind having good SEO is to increase your website’s SERP (Search Engine Results Page) ranking.

many sailboats

On the busy internet, it can be tough to make your “sailboat” stand out from all the others.

Ideally, you want your link to be on the first page of results. The best ways to accomplish this are:

  • consistently publish useful, original posts about sailboats; and
  • promote your blog in intelligent ways to people who are looking for information about your topic.

The more traffic your blog receives for sailboat-related searches, the higher it will climb in Google’s results. No mystery to that, right? But if you look around the internet, you’ll find dubious advice about how to increase your blog’s SERP ranking. Some of the suggestions you’ll find are just extra busywork, but some can actually end up hurting you with Google.

Common myths about SEO

Myth: I need a plugin for SEO.

Fact: has great SEO right out of the box — you don’t have to do anything extra. In fact, WordPress takes care of 80-90 percent of the mechanics of SEO for you, according to Matt Cutts, head of Google’s webspam team. All of our themes are optimized for search engines, which means they are designed to make it easy for the Googlebot (and other search engines) to crawl through them and discover all the content.

Myth: I need to regularly submit Sitemaps to Google so it knows I’m blogging regularly.

Fact: Every blog has an XML Sitemap. To view your Sitemap, type in your browser’s address bar. What you see there is code, so it’s not meant to be easily readable by us. For the Googlebot, however, it’s a “what’s hot” guide to the latest and greatest on your site. also automatically sends notifications to Google every time you publish or update a post or page. This is similar to how your subscribers get email updates. Every time you post, you’re telling Google, “Hey! Check this out.”

XML Sitemap

Here’s how this blog’s XML Sitemap looks in Chrome.

Myth: The more tags and categories I use for a post, the better it is for Google.

Fact: Using a bunch of tags and categories that have little to do with your posts won’t increase your site’s visibility. Actually, Google doesn’t rely on tags or categories — it can tell what your post is about from its content (or it should be able to), as Matt Cutts explains here. Plus, any post on with too many categories and tags will be excluded from the Reader Topics pages. It’s best to use only a few, carefully selected categories and tags for each post — those that are most relevant to what the post is about. Likewise, avoid overly broad tags: “catamaran” is a better tag than “boat.”

Myth: Creating several identical sites about sailboats and making frequent use of sailboat-related terminology in my posts will help me get a lot of sailboat-related traffic.

Fact: Google frowns on duplicate content, and if you have multiple identical sites, your search ranking will suffer for it. Also, while it’s a good idea to use accurate keywords in your posts and post titles, going overboard with so-called “keyword stuffing” will hurt your SERP rank. Strive for clear, natural-sounding writing that reads like it was intended for human ears, not search engine crawlers.

Myth: One effective way to improve my blog’s SERP rank is to purchase or exchange links (sometimes known as “backlinks”) with as many bloggers as possible, so that there’s a lot of traffic going to my blog.

Fact: If you blog about sailboats, the more sailboat-focused sites and articles that organically link to your blog as a fantastic source of sailboat info, the better. On the other hand, Google won’t be impressed if it sees a ton of links to your sailboat blog from blogs about, say, marketing, basketry, lipstick, electronics, or SEO tactics.

Think of it this way: Google wants people to use its search engine as much as you want them to visit your website, so its goal is to return the most useful results for any given query. The more tactics bloggers come up with to fool Google into ranking their sites higher than they deserve to be, the more Google corrects its search algorithms to screen out such bad behavior.

Paying for backlinks is a case in point: in April 2012, Google introduced its controversial Penguin algorithm that improved screening for this bad practice, and many bloggers with excessive backlinks found that their SERP rank plummeted. The moral of this story is that while SEO fads might bump your site artificially for a bit, in the long run, they won’t work.

Myth: SEO requires a strategy and possibly an expert…

For more read original post:

For more information about social media networking, how to add podcast to your website, SEO tips, tricks, social media  good practice, online tools and how to market your site visit New York Web Designer Agency Website