How to modify hosts file on local computer?


Easily edit the host file on Windows, Mac, linux

Easily edit the host file on Windows, Mac, Linux

How to modify hosts file on local computer?

The hosts file is a computer file used by an operating system to map hostnames to IP addresses.

The hosts file is a plain text file, and is conventionally named hosts. Originally a HOSTS.TXT file and maintained centrally by Stanford Research Institute for the ARPANET, the hosts file predates the Domain Name System, which was first described in 1983 and implemented in 1984.

Prior to DNS, the hosts file was manually edited and served as a table of accessible hosts. It was due the size of the growing Internet and coincident growth of the hosts table that the more robust DNS was embraced and the hosts file supplanted.


Editing your hosts file will allow you to override the DNS for a domain, on that particular machine.

Can be used to test your site without the test link, prior to going live with SSL, verify an alias site works prior to DNS changes, or for other DNS related reasons.

This causes your local machine only to look directly at the IP specified.

Your hosts file will need to have two entries added that will contain the IP address you want the site to resolve to and the address. Adding the below two lines for example will point www.yourtesturl.com and yourtesturl.com to our current PHP5-ITK (“Refreshed” PHP5) cluster:

127.0.0.1  localhost loopback
::1        localhost

or
127.0.0.1 www.yourtesturl.com
127.0.0.1 yourtesturl.com

Below is how to locate and edit the hosts file on several OS platforms. Once the proper domain information is added you will save the file and your system will begin resolving to the specified IP. Once testing is finished these entries should be removed.

Contents

 

  • Windows 8
  • Vista and Windows 7
  • Windows NT/2000/XP
  • Linux
  • Mac OSX 10.0 – 10.1.5
  • Mac OSX 10.6 – 10.8

local host file

local host file

Windows 8

Editing a HOSTS File in Windows 8

Here is what you can do in order to edit the HOSTS file on Windows 8.

  • Copy the HOSTS file from the  C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc folder to your Desktop.
  • Open the copy from your Desktop in Notepad, and make all necessary changes.

Or directly open file location from NotePad or other PlainText editor like

 

Windows Vista and Windows 7

Vista and Windows 7 use User Account Control (UAC) so Notepad must be run as Administrator.

1. Click Start -> All Programs -> Accessories

2. Right click Notepad and select Run as administrator

3. Click Continue on the “Windows needs your permission” UAC window.

4. When Notepad opens Click File -> Open

5. In the filename field type C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\hosts

6. Click Open

 

 

Windows NT/2000/XP

1. Click Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Notepad

2. Click File -> Open

3. In the filename field type C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\hosts

4. Click Open

 

Linux

1. Open a terminal window

2. Type sudo nano /etc/hosts (you can substitute any text editor)

3. Enter your password

 

 

Mac OS X 10.0 – 10.1.5

1. Open /Applications/Utilities/NetInfo Manager.

2. To allow editing the NetInfo database, click the padlock in the lower left corner of the window.

3. Enter your Admin password and click OK

4. In the second column of the browser view, select the node named “machines.” You will see entries for -DHCP-, broadcasthost, and localhost in the third column.

5. The quickest way to create a new entry is to duplicate an existing one. So select the “localhost” item in the third column.

6. Choose Duplicate from the Edit menu. A confirmation alert appears.

7. Click Duplicate. A new entry called “localhost copy” appears, and its properties are shown below the browser view.

8. Double-click the value of the ip_address property and enter the IP address of the other computer.

9. Double-click the value of the name property and enter the hostname you want for the other computer.

10. Click the serves property and choose Delete from the Edit menu.

11. Choose Save from the File menu. A confirmation alert appears.

12. Click Update this copy.

13. Repeat steps 6 through 12 for each additional host entry you wish to add.

14. Choose Quit from the NetInfo Manager menu. You do not need to restart the computer.

 

Mac OS X 10.6 – 10.1.8

1. Open Applications > Utilities > Terminal.

2. Open the hosts file by typing the following in the Terminal window:

sudo nano /private/etc/hosts

Type your user password when prompted

3. Edit the Host File,The hosts file contains some comments (lines starting with the # symbol), as well as some default hostname mappings (e.g. 127.0.0.1 – local host). Append your new mappings underneath the default ones.

4. Save the Host File, When done editing the hosts file, press Control+x to save the file.

5. Make your changes take effect by flushing the DNS cache with the following command:

$ dscacheutil -flushcache

6. New mappings should now take effect.

 

 

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Change your password - Heartbleed Bug

Heartbleed Hask: The Passwords You Need Change ASAP.

latest update:

NSA knew about Heartbleed for two years – Bloomberg

The critical “Heartbleed” bug reported earlier this week to have affected the security of most of the internet was discovered by researchers at the United States National Security Agency two years earlier, according to a new report.

On Friday afternoon, Bloomberg News journalist Michael Riley reported that the NSA knew about the monstrous flaw for at least two years ahead of this week’s announcement, but kept it hidden from technologists and instead exploited it to hack the computers and correspondence of certain intelligence targets.

Earlier in the week, the open-source OpenSSL internet security project issued an emergency advisory after discovery of the Heartbleed bug revealed a weakness that may have for years allowed hackers to access online information otherwise thought to be protected by the SSL/TLS encryption standard used by around two-thirds of the web…. more here

Boomberg TV:

http://www.bloomberg.com/video/what-and-when-did-nsa-know-about-heartbleed-bug-CcNm~m5ZSzC9GWx4na6L2Q.html

What and When Did NSA Know About Heartbleed Bug?

 

IF you use any of those sites change your password ASAP.

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Facebook Unclear Yes Yes Yes “We added protections for Facebook’s implementation of OpenSSL before this issue was publicly disclosed. We haven’t detected any signs of suspicious account activity, but we encourage people to … set up a unique password.”
Instagram Yes Yes Yes Yes “Our security teams worked quickly on a fix and we have no evidence of any accounts being harmed. But because this event impacted many services across the web, we recommend you update your password on Instagram and other sites, particularly if you use the same password on multiple sites.”
LinkedIn No No No “We didn’t use the offending implementation of OpenSSL in http://www.linkedin.com or http://www.slideshare.net. As a result, HeartBleed does not present a risk to these web properties.”
Pinterest Yes Yes Yes Yes “We fixed the issue on Pinterest.com, and didn’t find any evidence of mischief. To be extra careful, we e-mailed Pinners who may have been impacted, and encouraged them to change their passwords.”
Tumblr Yes Yes Yes Yes “We have no evidence of any breach and, like most networks, our team took immediate action to fix the issue.”
Twitter No Yes Unclear Twitter wrote that OpenSSL “is widely used across the internet and at Twitter. We were able to determine that [our] servers were not affected by this vulnerability. We are continuing to monitor the situation.” While reiterating that they were unaffected, Twitter told Mashable that they did apply a patch.

Other Companies

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Apple No No No “iOS and OS X never incorporated the vulnerable software and key web-based services were not affected.”
Amazon No No No “Amazon.com is not affected.”
Google Yes Yes Yes Yes* “We have assessed the SSL vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services.” Search, Gmail, YouTube, Wallet, Play, Apps and App Engine were affected; Google Chrome and Chrome OS were not.

*Google said users do not need to change their passwords, but because of the previous vulnerability, better safe than sorry.

Microsoft No No No Microsoft services were not running OpenSSL, according to LastPass.
Yahoo Yes Yes Yes Yes “As soon as we became aware of the issue, we began working to fix it… and we are working to implement the fix across the rest of our sites right now.” Yahoo Homepage, Yahoo Search, Yahoo Mail, Yahoo Finance, Yahoo Sports, Yahoo Food, Yahoo Tech, Flickr and Tumblr were patched. More patches to come, Yahoo says.

Email

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
AOL No No No AOL told Mashable it was not running the vulnerable version of the software.
Gmail Yes Yes Yes Yes* “We have assessed the SSL vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services.”

*Google said users do not need to change their passwords, but because of the previous vulnerability, better safe than sorry.

Hotmail / Outlook No No No Microsoft services were not running OpenSSL, according to LastPass.
Yahoo Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes “As soon as we became aware of the issue, we began working to fix it… and we are working to implement the fix across the rest of our sites right now.”

Stores and Commerce

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Amazon No No No “Amazon.com is not affected.”
Amazon Web Services (for website operators) Yes Yes Yes Yes Most services were unaffected or Amazon was already able to apply mitigations (see advisory note here). Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon EC2, Amazon Linux AMI, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Ubuntu, AWS OpsWorks, AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Amazon CloudFront were patched.
eBay No No No “eBay.com was never vulnerable to this bug because we were never running a vulnerable version of OpenSSL.”
Etsy Yes* Yes Yes Yes Etsy said that only a small part of its infrastructure was vulnerable, and they have patched it.
GoDaddy Yes Yes Yes Yes “We’ve been updating GoDaddy services that use the affected OpenSSL version.” Full Statement
Groupon No No No “Groupon.com does not utilize a version of the OpenSSL library that is susceptible to the Heartbleed bug.”
Nordstrom No No No “Nordstrom websites do not use OpenSSL encryption.”
PayPal No No No “Your PayPal account details were not exposed in the past and remain secure.” Full Statement
Target No No No “[We] launched a comprehensive review of all external facing aspects of Target.com… and do not currently believe that any external-facing aspects of our sites are impacted by the OpenSSL vulnerability.”
Walmart No No No “We do not use that technology so we have not been impacted by this particular breach.”

Videos, Photos, Games & Entertainment

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Flickr Yes Yes Yes Yes “As soon as we became aware of the issue, we began working to fix it… and we are working to implement the fix across the rest of our sites right now.”
Hulu No No No No comment provided.
Minecraft Yes Yes Yes Yes “We were forced to temporary suspend all of our services. … The exploit has been fixed. We can not guarantee that your information wasn’t compromised.” More Information
Netflix Yes Yes Yes Yes “Like many companies, we took immediate action to assess the vulnerability and address it. We are not aware of any customer impact. It’s a good practice to change passwords from time to time, now would be a good time to think about doing so. “
SoundCloud Yes Yes Yes Yes SoundCloud emphasized that there were no indications of any foul play and that the company’s actions were simply precautionary.
YouTube Yes Yes Yes Yes* “We have assessed the SSL vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services.”

*Google said users do not need to change their passwords, but because of the previous vulnerability, better safe than sorry.

Financial

All the banks we contacted (see below) said they were unaffected by Heartbleed, but U.S. regulators have warned banks to patch their systems.

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
American Express No No No “There was no compromise of any customer data. While we are not requiring customers to take any specific action at this time, it is a good security practice to regularly update Internet passwords.”
Bank of America No No No “A majority of our platforms do NOT use OpenSSL, and the ones that do, we have confirmed no vulnerabilities.”
Barclays No No No No comment provided.
Capital One No No No “Capital One uses a version of encryption that is not vulnerable to Heartbleed.”
Chase No No No “These sites don’t use the encryption software that is vulnerable to the Heartbleed bug.”
Citigroup No No No Citigroup does not use Open SSL in “customer-facing retail banking and credit card sites and mobile apps”
E*Trade No No No E*Trade is still investigating.
Fidelity No No No “We have multiple layers of security in place to protect our customer sites and services.”
PNC No No No “We have tested our online and mobile banking systems and confirmed that they are not vulnerable to the Heartbleed bug.”
Schwab No No No “Efforts to date have not detected this vulnerability on Schwab.com or any of our online channels.”
Scottrade No No No “Scottrade does not use the affected version of OpenSSL on any of our client-facing platforms.”
TD Ameritrade No No No TD Ameritrade “doesn’t use the versions of openSSL that were vulnerable.”
TD Bank No No No “We’re currently taking precautions and steps to protect customer data from this threat and have no reason to believe any customer data has been compromised in the past.”
T. Rowe Price No No No “The T. Rowe Price websites are not vulnerable to the “Heartbleed” SSL bug nor were they vulnerable in the past.”
U.S. Bank No No No “We do not use OpenSSL for customer-facing, Internet banking channels, so U.S. Bank customer data is NOT at risk.”
Vanguard No No No “We are not using, and have not used, the vulnerable version of OpenSSL.”
Wells Fargo No No No No reason provided.

Government and Taxes

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
1040.com No No No “We’re not vulnerable to the Heartbleed bug, as we do not use OpenSSL.”
FileYour Taxes.com No No No “We continuously patch our servers to keep them updated. However, the version we use was not affected by the issue, so no action was taken.”
H&R Block No No No “We are reviewing our systems and currently have found no risk to client data from this issue.”
Healthcare .gov No No No “Healthcare.gov consumer accounts are not affected by this vulnerability.”
Intuit (TurboTax) No No No Turbotax wrote that “engineers have verified TurboTax is not affected by Heartbleed.” The company has issued new certificates anyway, and said it’s not “proactively advising” users to change their passwords.
IRS No No No “The IRS continues to accept tax returns as normal … and systems continue operating and are not affected by this bug. We are not aware of any security vulnerabilities related to this situation.”
TaxACT No No No “Customers can update their passwords at any time, although we are not proactively advising them to do so at this time.”
USAA Yes Yes Yes Yes USAA said that it has “already taken measures to help prevent a data breach and implemented a patch earlier this week.”

Other

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
Box Yes Yes Yes Yes “We’re currently working with our customers to proactively reset passwords and are also reissuing new SSL certificates for added protection.”
Dropbox Yes Yes Yes Yes On Twitter: “We’ve patched all of our user-facing services & will continue to work to make sure your stuff is always safe.”
Evernote No No No “Evernote’s service, Evernote apps, and Evernote websites … all use non-OpenSSL implementations of SSL/TLS to encrypt network communications.” Full Statement
GitHub Yes Yes Yes Yes GitHub said it has patched all its systems, deployed new SSL certificates and revoked old ones. GitHub is asking all users to change password, enable two-factor authentication and “revoke and recreate personal access and application tokens.”
IFTTT Yes Yes Yes Yes IFTTT emailed all its users and logged them out, prompting them to change their password on the site.
OKCupid Yes Yes Yes Yes “We, like most of the Internet, were stunned that such a serious bug has existed for so long and was so widespread.”
Spark Networks (JDate, Christian Mingle) No No No Sites do not use OpenSSL.
SpiderOak Yes Yes No Spideroak said it patched its servers, but the desktop client doesn’t use a vulnerable version of OpenSSL, so “customers do not need to take any special action.”
Wikipedia (if you have an account) Yes Yes Yes Yes “We recommend changing your password as a standard precautionary measure, but we do not currently intend to enforce a password change for all users.” Full Statement
WordPress Unclear Unclear Unclear WordPress tweeted that it has taken “immediate steps” and “addressed the Heartbleed OpenSSL exploit,” but it’s unclear if the issue is completely solder. When someone asked Matt Mullenweg, WordPress’ founding developer, when the site’s SSL certificates will be replaced and when users will be able to reset passwords, he simply answered: “soon.”
Wunderlist Yes Yes Yes Yes “You’ll have to simply log back into Wunderlist. We also strongly recommend that you reset your password for Wunderlist.” Full Statement

Password Managers

Was it affected? Is there a patch? Do you need to change your password? What did they say?
1Password No No No 1Password said in a blog post that its technology “is not built upon SSL/TLS in general, and not upon OpenSSL in particular.” So users don’t need to change their master password.
Dashlane Yes Yes No Dashlane said in a blog post users’ accounts were not impacted and the master password is safe as it is never transmitted. The site does use OpenSSL when syncing data with its servers but Dashlane said it has patched the bug, issued new SSL certificates and revoked previous ones.
LastPass Yes Yes No “Though LastPass employs OpenSSL, we have multiple layers of encryption to protect our users and never have access to those encryption keys.” Users don’t need to change their master passwords because they’re never sent to the server. But passwords for other sites stored in LastPass might need to be changed.

Change Your Websites Passwords — be glad you still can


change your password - Heartbleed Bug

change your password – Heartbleed Bug

How To Protect Yourself From The Massive Security Flaw That’s Taken Over The Internet

 

On April 07, 2014 a severe vulnerability in OpenSSL was announced.
If you are receiving this announcement, then you have at least one server with  that may be vulnerable to a serious security flaw.
Known formally as TLS heartbeat read overrun (CVE-2014-0160), and dubbed the “Heartbleed Bug”, this flaw allows for the theft of information normally protected by SSL/TLS encryption. Specifically, the Heartbleed Bug allows memory to be read on systems using OpenSSL 1.0.1 before 1.0.1g, which can compromise private/secret keys used to encrypt data and application traffic. At the very least, this would allow attackers to impersonate users and services, and provide a means for data theft. Unless automatic updating has been disabled, a patch has been downloaded for your system and a system reboot is required to complete the process. We encourage you to reboot your server as soon as possible to ensure your system is secure.

Beginning April 10, 2014 we will be updating and rebooting servers which are found to still be vulnerable to the Heartbleed Bug. Due to the nature of this vulnerability, and the volume of servers eligible for the update, we cannot accommodate requests for a specific reboot time. You may opt out of a server reboot, should you plan to apply the update yourself, by simply opening a ticket at your server provider. If you opt out, Liquid Web will assume that you’ve appropriately patched your servers. For further information on the OpenSSL Heartbleed Bug

In case the Heartbleed bug’s name hasn’t already convinced you of the seriousness of this security vulnerability, allow me to make this clear: you should change the password you use for every website you’ve visited in the last two years.

That message has been repeated ad nauseum since the vulnerability was first revealed earlier this week..

change your password - Heartbleed BugTumblr has asked its users to change their passwords. Mozilla has advised FireFox users who rely on the same password for multiple sites to do the same. So have the New York Times, the Wire, and countless other news sites. Again, in case the bleeding heart metaphor wasn’t enough to convince you that this is a real problem: change all of your passwords. Now.

That’s easier said than done, of course. While there are various tools that can generate strong passwords and keep them in sync across multiple platforms, there isn’t an “Oh shit!” button that can automatically reset all of those passwords when something like this happens. It’s up to you to remember all of the websites you’ve visited, the passwords you used for those sites, and to create new passwords that anyone knowing your old ones won’t be able to guess. That’s not necessarily a bad thing: having to manually change the passwords could help protect against any potential flaws hiding in the generators used by tools like 1Password or LastPass. (Note: I’m not saying the tools have flaws, I’m just saying they hypothetically could, company representatives.)

 

What is the Heartbleed bug?

Heartbleed is a flaw in OpenSSL, the open-source encryption standard used by the majority of websites that need to transmit the data that users want to keep secure. It basically gives you a secure line when you’re sending an email or chatting on IM.

Encryption works by making it so that data being sent looks like nonsense to anyone but the intended recipient.

Occasionally, one computer might want to check that there’s still a computer at the end of its secure connection, and it will send out what’s known as a heartbeat, a small packet of data that asks for a response.

Because of a programming error in the implementation of OpenSSL, the researchers found that it was possible to send a well-disguised packet of data that looked like one of these heartbeats to trick the computer at the other end into sending data stored in its memory.

The flaw was first reported to the team behind OpenSSL by Google security researcher Neel Mehta, and independently found by security firm Codenomicon. According to the researchers who discovered the flaw, the code has been in OpenSSL for about two years, and using it doesn’t leave a trace.

Change your password - Heartbleed BugHow bad is that?

It’s really bad. Web servers can keep a lot of information in their active memory, including usernames, passwords, and even the content that users have uploaded to a service. According to Vox.com’s Timothy Lee, even credit-card numbers could be pulled out of the data sitting in memory on the servers that power some services.

But worse than that, the flaw has made it possible for hackers to steal encryption keys — the codes used to turn gibberish-encrypted data into readable information.

With encryption keys, hackers can intercept encrypted data moving to and from a site’s servers and read it without establishing a secure connection. This means that unless the companies running vulnerable servers change their keys, even future traffic will be susceptible.

Am I affected?

Probably, though again, this isn’t simply an issue on your personal computer or your phone — it’s in the software that powers the services you use. Security firm Codenomicon reports:

You are likely to be affected either directly or indirectly. OpenSSL is the most popular open source cryptographic library and TLS (transport layer security) implementation used to encrypt traffic on the Internet. Your popular social site, your company’s site, commercial site, hobby site, sites you install software from or even sites run by your government might be using vulnerable OpenSSL.

According to a recent Netcraft web server survey that looked at nearly 959,000,000 websites, 66% of sites are powered by technology built around SSL, and that doesn’t include email services, chat services, and a wide variety of apps available on every platform.

Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/heartbleed-bug-explainer-2014-4#ixzz2yPGdgb5W

The good news is that passwords for services like Facebook and Gmail can be changed. It would be much harder to protect against compromised biometric security measures — what are you gonna do, burn your finger tips and tattoo some new patterns onto them?

 

All Winter Olympics Game Medals and Winner #Socialympics


The 2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia.

#Socialympics
The Winter Olympic Games
is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating. The Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and were celebrated every four years. The Winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years until 1992, after a 1986 decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to place the Summer and Winter Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years. Because of the change, the next Winter Olympics after 1992 were in 1994.

XXII Olympic Winter Games Medals Count in Sochi 2014 Olympics : http://www.sochi2014.com/en/medals

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia. Officially scheduled for 7 February through 23 February 2014, opening rounds in figure skating, skiing, and snowboard competitions were held on the eve of the Opening Ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. The Sochi Olympics will be the first Olympics in the Russian Federation since the breakup of the USSR in 1991. The USSR was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.

98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines will be held throughout the Games.
A number of new competitions—a total of twelve accounting for gender—will be held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women’s ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. The events will be held around two clusters of new venues; an Olympic Park was constructed in Sochi’s Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium and the Games’ indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events will be held in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana.

Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics Game Medals and Winner

Medal count

Rank Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Russian Fed. 13 11 9 33
2 Norway 11 5 10 26
3 Canada 10 10 5 25
4 United States 9 7 12 28
5 Netherlands 8 7 9 24
6 Germany 8 6 5 19
7 Switzerland 6 3 2 11
8 Belarus 5 0 1 6
9 Austria 4 8 5 17
10 France 4 4 7 15
11 Poland 4 1 1 6
12 China 3 4 2 9
13 Korea 3 3 2 8
14 Sweden 2 7 6 15
15 Czech Republic 2 4 2 8
16 Slovenia 2 2 4 8
17 Japan 1 4 3 8
18 Finland 1 3 1 5
19 Great Britain 1 1 2 4
20 Ukraine 1 0 1 2
21 Slovakia 1 0 0 1
22 Italy 0 2 6 8
23 Latvia 0 2 2 4
24 Australia 0 2 1 3
25 Croatia 0 1 0 1
26 Kazakhstan 0 0 1 1
- Albania 0 0 0 0
- Andorra 0 0 0 0
- Argentina 0 0 0 0
- Armenia 0 0 0 0
- Azerbaijan 0 0 0 0
- Belgium 0 0 0 0
- Bermuda 0 0 0 0
- Bosnia and Herzegovina 0 0 0 0
- Brazil 0 0 0 0
- Bulgaria 0 0 0 0
- Cayman Islands 0 0 0 0
- Chile 0 0 0 0
- Chinese Taipei 0 0 0 0
- Cyprus 0 0 0 0
- Denmark 0 0 0 0
- Dominica 0 0 0 0
- Estonia 0 0 0 0
- Georgia 0 0 0 0
- Greece 0 0 0 0
- Hong Kong, CHN 0 0 0 0
- Hungary 0 0 0 0
- Iceland 0 0 0 0
- Independent Olympic Participant 0 0 0 0
- India 0 0 0 0
- IR Iran 0 0 0 0
- Ireland 0 0 0 0
- Israel 0 0 0 0
- Jamaica 0 0 0 0
- Kyrgyzstan 0 0 0 0
- Lebanon 0 0 0 0
- Liechtenstein 0 0 0 0
- Lithuania 0 0 0 0
- Luxembourg 0 0 0 0
- Malta 0 0 0 0
- Mexico 0 0 0 0
- Monaco 0 0 0 0
- Mongolia 0 0 0 0
- Montenegro 0 0 0 0
- Morocco 0 0 0 0
- Nepal 0 0 0 0
- New Zealand 0 0 0 0
- Pakistan 0 0 0 0
- Paraguay 0 0 0 0
- Peru 0 0 0 0
- Philippines 0 0 0 0
- Portugal 0 0 0 0
- Rep. of Moldova 0 0 0 0
- Romania 0 0 0 0
- San Marino 0 0 0 0
- Serbia 0 0 0 0
- Spain 0 0 0 0
- Tajikistan 0 0 0 0
- Thailand 0 0 0 0
- The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 0 0 0 0
- Timor-Leste 0 0 0 0
- Togo 0 0 0 0
- Tonga 0 0 0 0
- Turkey 0 0 0 0
- Uzbekistan 0 0 0 0
- Venezuela 0 0 0 0
- Virgin Isl, B 0 0 0 0
- Virgin Isl, US 0 0 0 0
- Zimbabwe 0 0 0 0

List of All Winter Olympics Game Medals and Winner Before Sochi 2014

Rank Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Norway 107 106 90 303
2 United States 87 95 71 253
3 USSR 78 57 59 194
4 Germany 68 72 48 188
5 Austria 55 70 76 201
6 Canada 52 45 48 145
7 Sweden 48 33 48 129
8 Switzerland 44 37 46 127
9 Finland 41 59 56 156
10 GDR 39 36 35 110
11 Italy 37 32 37 106
12 Russian Fed. 36 29 26 91
13 Netherlands 29 31 26 86
14 France 27 27 40 94
15 Korea 23 14 8 45
16 FRG 13 15 13 41
17 China 9 18 17 44
18 Japan 9 13 15 37
19 Unified Team 9 6 8 23
20 Great Britain 9 3 10 22
21 Olympic United Team of Germany 8 6 5 19
22 Czech Republic 5 5 6 16
23 Australia 5 1 3 9
24 Croatia 4 5 1 10
25 Estonia 4 2 1 7
26 Czechoslovakia 2 8 15 25
27 Poland 2 6 6 14
28 Liechtenstein 2 2 5 9
29 Belarus 1 4 4 9
31 Bulgaria 1 2 3 6
30 Kazakhstan 1 3 2 6
=33 Belgium 1 1 3 5
=33 Ukraine 1 1 3 5
32 Slovakia 1 2 1 4
35 Spain 1 0 1 2
36 Uzbekistan 1 0 0 1
38 Slovenia 0 2 5 7
39 Hungary 0 2 4 6
37 Yugoslavia 0 3 1 4
40 Latvia 0 2 1 3
42 DPR Korea 0 1 1 2
41 Luxembourg 0 2 0 2
45 Romania 0 0 1 1
=43 Denmark 0 1 0 1
=43 New Zealand 0 1 0 1

How to Improve SEO?


Rodin's The Thinker (1879–1889)

Rodin’s The Thinker (1879–1889) is among the most recognized works in all of sculpture.

What do you need to improve SEO?
;-0

To improve SEO you need 3 (three) simple things.

1) learn how to read

2) learn to understand what you read

3) Most important – Implement the way it meant in your reading (2) material.
Not just the way you got it.
Reading help to understand many things ;-)
Understanding help even better!

Nothing better for SEO then read and understand Webmaster Guidelines from Both Google and Bing whatever shorter.
But you need to understand it, not guess, not got it, not realize, not recognize some words that you know.

No matter how much and how ofter you talked about it.
How wonderful, beautiful, colorful graphs you looked at.
If you have no idea of what they meant, or how to use them better go to art gallery.

Understating and most important implementations is the key.

to learn more about how Google fight spam and report spammers use those links:

https://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/spamreport?hl=en

https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/93713?hl=en

https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/93713?hl=en

https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/142143?hl=en&rd=1

https://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/spamreportform-ac?hl=en

Removing Content From Google

https://support.google.com/legal/troubleshooter/1114905?rd=1#ts=1115655

Want to report more webspam?

Go to the webspam report form, or install the Chrome Webspam Report Extension, which allows you to report spam with one click from the search results page.
Want to improve your search experience?

Need help visit my site: youneeditall.com and send me email

it was time to add post to my blog, so i did it Blah-blah-blah

What should a site owner do if they think they might be affected by Panda?


How will webmaster come to know whether website is hit by Panda?

And, if  site is already hit, how to recover from Panda?

Answer: You need to read UNDERSTAND and implement Google Webmaster Guideline not when site hit but before and after that happens.

Implementation is a key.

Improve site contents on regular basis if possible.

Understanding Google Webmaster Guideline correctly – Success Factors for Implementation.

Answer from Matt Cutts ‎ Google Software Engineer:

Published on Sep 11, 2013

Reprinted with sole purpose to remind webmasters and website owners to read Google Webmaster Guideline.

Do not pay for SEO all info you every need Google provide.

But if you do not have time to read and follow simple and common scene instructions do not blame Google if your site is our of first page on Google Organic Search results
Some website owner looking for one single reason site was “hit” by algorithm update… ;-(

how to recover from google panda updateWhat counts as a high-quality site?

Our site quality algorithms are aimed at helping people find “high-quality” sites by reducing the rankings of low-quality content. The recent “Panda” change tackles the difficult task of algorithmically assessing website quality. Taking a step back, we wanted to explain some of the ideas and research that drive the development of our algorithms.

Below are some questions that one could use to access the “quality” of a page or an article. These are the kinds of questions we ask ourselves as we write algorithms that attempt to assess site quality. Think of it as our take at encoding what we think our users want.

Of course, we aren’t disclosing the actual ranking signals used in our algorithms because we don’t want folks to game our search results; but if you want to step into Google’s mindset, the questions below provide some guidance on how we’ve been looking at the issue:

  • Would you trust the information presented in this article?
  • Is this article written by an expert or enthusiast who knows the topic well, or is it more shallow in nature?
  • Does the site have duplicate, overlapping, or redundant articles on the same or similar topics with slightly different keyword variations?
  • Would you be comfortable giving your credit card information to this site?
  • Does this article have spelling, stylistic, or factual errors?
  • Are the topics driven by genuine interests of readers of the site, or does the site generate content by attempting to guess what might rank well in search engines?
  • Does the article provide original content or information, original reporting, original research, or original analysis?
  • Does the page provide substantial value when compared to other pages in search results?
  • How much quality control is done on content?
  • Does the article describe both sides of a story?
  • Is the site a recognized authority on its topic?
  • Is the content mass-produced by or outsourced to a large number of creators, or spread across a large network of sites, so that individual pages or sites don’t get as much attention or care?
  • Was the article edited well, or does it appear sloppy or hastily produced?
  • For a health related query, would you trust information from this site?
  • Would you recognize this site as an authoritative source when mentioned by name?
  • Does this article provide a complete or comprehensive description of the topic?
  • Does this article contain insightful analysis or interesting information that is beyond obvious?
  • Is this the sort of page you’d want to bookmark, share with a friend, or recommend?
  • Does this article have an excessive amount of ads that distract from or interfere with the main content?
  • Would you expect to see this article in a printed magazine, encyclopedia or book?
  • Are the articles short, unsubstantial, or otherwise lacking in helpful specifics?
  • Are the pages produced with great care and attention to detail vs. less attention to detail?
  • Would users complain when they see pages from this site?

Writing an algorithm to assess page or site quality is a much harder task, but we hope the questions above give some insight into how we try to write algorithms that distinguish higher-quality sites from lower-quality sites.

What you can do

We’ve been hearing from many of you that you want more guidance on what you can do to improve your rankings on Google, particularly if you think you’ve been impacted by the Panda update. We encourage you to keep questions like the ones above in mind as you focus on developing high-quality content rather than trying to optimize for any particular Google algorithm.

One other specific piece of guidance we’ve offered is that low-quality content on some parts of a website can impact the whole site’s rankings, and thus removing low quality pages, merging or improving the content of individual shallow pages into more useful pages, or moving low quality pages to a different domain could eventually help the rankings of your higher-quality content.

We’re continuing to work on additional algorithmic iterations to help webmasters operating high-quality sites get more traffic from search. As you continue to improve your sites, rather than focusing on one particular algorithmic tweak, we encourage you to ask yourself the same sorts of questions we ask when looking at the big picture. This way your site will be more likely to rank well for the long-term. In the meantime, if you have feedback, please tell us through our Webmaster Forum. We continue to monitor threads on the forum and pass site info on to the search quality team as we work on future iterations of our ranking algorithms.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QSEqypgIJME

Some ideas on how to evaluate the quality of a site:
http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspo…

Have a question? Ask it in our Webmaster Help Forum: http://groups.google.com/a/googleprod…

Want your question to be answered on a video like this? Follow us on Twitter and look for an announcement when we take new questions: http://twitter.com/googlewmc

More videos: http://www.youtube.com/GoogleWebmaste…
Webmaster Central Blog: http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspo…
Webmaster Central: http://www.google.com/webmasters/

❶Copy ❷Paste ❸Be Happy ★ Special Characters for Social Media are ♨HOT!☺


keyboard special characters💰 Special Characters Map for use on Twitter, FaceBook, Blogs and Social Media Sites

★ Free character maps online where you can copy and paste a special character from a Web page into

Here are some to get you started:

♈ ♉ ♊ ♋ ♌ ♍ ♎ ♏ ♐ ♑ ♒ ✐ ❂ ♓ ☨ ☧ ☦ ✁ ✃ ✄ ✎ ☬ ☫ ❉ ❆ ♅ ♇ ♆ ♙ ♟ ♔ ♕ ♖ ♗ ♘ © ® ™ … ∞ ≤ ≥ « » ç ∫ µ ◊ ı ¥ € £ ƒ $ º ª ‽ ♤ ✈ ♪ ☤ ♀ ☾ ☝ ♖ ✽ ☯ ♥ ☺ ♬ ☹ ☑ ✩ ☠ ✔ ✉ ♂ ✖ ✏ ♝ ❀ ♨ ❦ ☁ ✌ ♛ ❁ ☪ ☂ ★ ✇ ♺ ☭ ☃ ☛ ♞ ✿ ☮ ♘ ✾ ☄ ☟ ✝ ☼ ☚ ♟ ✺ ☥ ✂ ✍ ♕ ✵ ☉ ☇ ☈ ☡ ✠ ☊ ☋ ☌ ☍ ♁ ✇ ☢ ☣ ✣ ✡ ☞ ☜ ✜ ✛ ❥ ♗ ♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ Ω ≈ * § ∆ ¬ † & æ π ¡ ¿ ø å ∂ • ¶ œ Æ ß ÷ ‰ √ ª % ♠ ☎ ☻ ♫ ☒ ˚ ¯ º ‽ ≠ ˆ ˜ ˘ ∑ ƒ

❄ Add Special Characters in Twitter With the Windows Character Map

1. Click Start, open your list of All Programs, and open the Accessories folder. Navigate to System Tools and open the Character Map program.

2. Select a font from the list.

3. Check the Advanced view box.

4. In the Character set list, select Unicode.

5. In the Group by list, select All to browse all available characters by font, or select Unicode Subrange to browse characters by category.

6. Collect characters by highlighting them and clicking Select. When you are finished collecting, click Copy to copy the characters to the clipboard. You can now paste them into your message.
Use Facebook Emoticons

Here is the complete list of Facebook Chat emoticons and what character combinations create them. Note that these currently only work in Facebook Chat and will not display correctly in Facebook status updates or comments.

Smile :-) :) :] =)

Frown :-( :( :[ =(

Tongue :-P :P :-p :p =P

Grin :-D :D =D

Gasp :-O :O :-o :o

Wink ;-) ;)

Glasses 8-) 8) B-) B)

Sunglasses 8-| 8| B-| B|

Grumpy >:( >:-(

Unsure :/ :-/ :\ :-\

Cry :'(

Devil 3:) 3:-)

Angel O:) O:-)

Kiss :-* :*

Heart :O >:-O >:o >:-o

Pacman :v

Curly Lips :3

Robot :|]

Chris Putnam :putnam:

Shark (^^^)

Penguin <(“)

42 :42:

Using Emoticons in Gmail, Gchat, and Other Google Services

To unlock all available emoticons in Gmail:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Labs.

2. Type emoji in the Search for labs box.

3. Enable Extra Emoji and click Save Changes. Enable the Extra Emoji option in Google Labs.

4. When composing a message, click the Insert Emoticon symbol to browse. Click any symbol to insert it into your message.

You must be in rich formatting mode to insert emoticons. In GChat, some emoticons are easy to select, but others are hidden:

1. Click the Gear icon in the top right corner, then click Mail Settings.

2. In the Chat tab, select Emoticons on at the bottom. Click Save Changes. Switch on emoticons in the Chat tab.

3. Open a new chat window and click the emoticon in the corner to browse GChat emoticons. Nice job!

One final tidbit: The emoticons listed in the GChat window aren’t all that are available.

Here is a top-secret list of hidden GChat emoticons:

Devil }:-)

Moustache :{

Robot [:|]

Poo ~@~

Rock Out \m/

Monkey :(|)

Bell +/’\

Crab V.v.V Wince >.<

Broken heart

Pig :(:)

Kiss :-x

keyboard and number pad special charactersUse your number keypad (ALT + Number Pad.) for these special characters

Special characters work on Google+, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Tumblr.

☺           ALt+1

☻          ALt+2

♥            ALt+3

♦             ALt+4

♣            ALt+5

♠             ALt+6

•             ALt+7

◘            ALt+8

○             ALt+9

◙            ALt+10

♂          Alt + 11

♀          Alt + 12

♪             ALt+13

♫            ALt+14

☼           ALt+15

░            ALt+176

▒            ALt+177

▓            ALt+178

│             ALt+179

┤            ALt+180

╡            ALt+181

╢            ALt+182

╖            ALt+183

╕            ALt+184

╣            ALt+185

║            ALt+186

╗            ALt+187

╝            ALt+188

╜            ALt+189

╛            ALt+190

┐             ALt+191

└             ALt+192

┴            ALt+193

┬            ALt+194

├            ALt+195

─             ALt+196

┼            ALt+197

╞            ALt+198

╟            ALt+199

╚            ALt+200

╔            ALt+201

╩            ALt+202

╦            ALt+203

╠            ALt+204

═            ALt+205

╬            ALt+206

╧            ALt+207

╨            ALt+208

╤            ALt+209

╥            ALt+210

╙            ALt+211

╘            ALt+212

╒            ALt+213

╓            ALt+214

╫            ALt+215

╪            ALt+216

┘             ALt+217

┌             ALt+218

Special Characters in HTML

left single quote &lsquo;
right single quote &rsquo;
single low-9 quote &sbquo;
left double quote &ldquo;
right double quote &rdquo;
double low-9 quote &bdquo;
dagger &dagger;
double dagger &Dagger;
per mill sign &permil;
single left-pointing angle quote &lsaquo;
single right-pointing angle quote &rsaquo;
black spade suit &spades;
black club suit &clubs;
black heart suit &hearts;
black diamond suit &diams;
overline, = spacing overscore &oline;
leftward arrow &larr;
upward arrow &uarr;
rightward arrow &rarr;
downward arrow &darr;
trademark sign &trade;
unused &#00;-
&#08;
horizontal tab
line feed
unused &#11;
space
exclamation mark ! !
double quotation mark &quot;
number sign # #
dollar sign $ $
percent sign % %
ampersand & &amp; &
apostrophe
left parenthesis ( (
right parenthesis ) )
asterisk * *
plus sign + +
comma , ,
hyphen - -
period . .
slash / &frasl; /
digits 0-9 0-
9
colon : :
semicolon ; ;
less-than sign < &lt; <
equals sign = =
greater-than sign > &gt; >
question mark ? ?
at sign @ @
uppercase letters A-Z A-
Z
left square bracket [ [
backslash \ \
right square bracket ] ]
caret ^ ^
horizontal bar (underscore) _ _
grave accent ` `
lowercase letters a-z a-
z
left curly brace { {
vertical bar | |
right curly brace } }
tilde ~ ~
ellipses &hellip;
en dash &ndash;
em dash &mdash;
unused ˜-
Ÿ
nonbreaking space &nbsp;  
inverted exclamation ¡ &iexcl; ¡
cent sign ¢ &cent; ¢
pound sterling £ &pound; £
general currency sign ¤ &curren; ¤
yen sign ¥ &yen; ¥
broken vertical bar ¦ &brvbar; or &brkbar; ¦
section sign § &sect; §
umlaut ¨ &uml; or &die; ¨
copyright © &copy; ©
feminine ordinal ª &ordf; ª
left angle quote « &laquo; «
not sign ¬ &not; ¬
soft hyphen ­ &shy; ­
registered trademark ® &reg; ®
macron accent ¯ &macr; or &hibar; ¯
degree sign ° &deg; °
plus or minus ± &plusmn; ±
superscript two ² &sup2; ²
superscript three ³ &sup3; ³
acute accent ´ &acute; ´
micro sign µ &micro; µ
paragraph sign &para;
middle dot · &middot; ·
cedilla ¸ &cedil; ¸
superscript one ¹ &sup1; ¹
masculine ordinal º &ordm; º
right angle quote » &raquo; »
one-fourth ¼ &frac14; ¼
one-half ½ &frac12; ½
three-fourths ¾ &frac34; ¾
inverted question mark ¿ &iquest; ¿
uppercase A, grave accent À &Agrave; À
uppercase A, acute accent Á &Aacute; Á
uppercase A, circumflex accent  &Acirc; Â
uppercase A, tilde à &Atilde; Ã
uppercase A, umlaut Ä &Auml; Ä
uppercase A, ring Å &Aring; Å
uppercase AE Æ &AElig; Æ
uppercase C, cedilla Ç &Ccedil; Ç
uppercase E, grave accent È &Egrave; È
uppercase E, acute accent É &Eacute; É
uppercase E, circumflex accent Ê &Ecirc; Ê
uppercase E, umlaut Ë &Euml; Ë
uppercase I, grave accent Ì &Igrave; Ì
uppercase I, acute accent Í &Iacute; Í
uppercase I, circumflex accent Î &Icirc; Î
uppercase I, umlaut Ï &Iuml; Ï
uppercase Eth, Icelandic Ð &ETH; Ð
uppercase N, tilde Ñ &Ntilde; Ñ
uppercase O, grave accent Ò &Ograve; Ò
uppercase O, acute accent Ó &Oacute; Ó
uppercase O, circumflex accent Ô &Ocirc; Ô
uppercase O, tilde Õ &Otilde; Õ
uppercase O, umlaut Ö &Ouml; Ö
multiplication sign × &times; ×
uppercase O, slash Ø &Oslash; Ø
uppercase U, grave accent Ù &Ugrave; Ù
uppercase U, acute accent Ú &Uacute; Ú
uppercase U, circumflex accent Û &Ucirc; Û
uppercase U, umlaut Ü &Uuml; Ü
uppercase Y, acute accent Ý &Yacute; Ý
uppercase THORN, Icelandic Þ &THORN; Þ
lowercase sharps, German ß &szlig; ß
lowercase a, grave accent à &agrave; à
lowercase a, acute accent á &aacute; á
lowercase a, circumflex accent â &acirc; â
lowercase a, tilde ã &atilde; ã
lowercase a, umlaut ä &auml; ä
lowercase a, ring å &aring; å
lowercase ae æ &aelig; æ
lowercase c, cedilla ç &ccedil; ç
lowercase e, grave accent è &egrave; è
lowercase e, acute accent é &eacute; é
lowercase e, circumflex accent ê &ecirc; ê
lowercase e, umlaut ë &euml; ë
lowercase i, grave accent ì &igrave; ì
lowercase i, acute accent í &iacute; í
lowercase i, circumflex accent î &icirc; î
lowercase i, umlaut ï &iuml; ï
lowercase eth, Icelandic ð &eth; ð
lowercase n, tilde ñ &ntilde; ñ
lowercase o, grave accent ò &ograve; ò
lowercase o, acute accent ó &oacute; ó
lowercase o, circumflex accent ô &ocirc; ô
lowercase o, tilde õ &otilde; õ
lowercase o, umlaut ö &ouml; ö
division sign ÷ &divide; ÷
lowercase o, slash ø &oslash; ø
lowercase u, grave accent ù &ugrave; ù
lowercase u, acute accent ú &uacute; ú
lowercase u, circumflex accent û &ucirc; û
lowercase u, umlaut ü &uuml; ü
lowercase y, acute accent ý &yacute; ý
lowercase thorn, Icelandic þ &thorn; þ
lowercase y, umlaut ÿ &yuml; ÿ
Alpha &Alpha; Α
alpha &alpha; α
Beta &Beta; Β
beta &beta; β
Gamma &Gamma; Γ
gamma &gamma; γ
Delta &Delta; Δ
delta &delta; δ
Epsilon &Epsilon; Ε
epsilon &epsilon; ε
Zeta &Zeta; Ζ
zeta &zeta; ζ
Eta &Eta; Η
eta &eta; η
Theta &Theta; Θ
theta &theta; θ
Iota &Iota; Ι
iota &iota; ι
Kappa &Kappa; Κ
kappa &kappa; κ
Lambda &Lambda; Λ
lambda &lambda; λ
Mu &Mu; Μ
mu &mu; μ
Nu &Nu; Ν
nu &nu; ν
Xi &Xi; Ξ
xi &xi; ξ
Omicron &Omicron; Ο
omicron &omicron; ο
Pi &Pi; Π
pi &pi; π
Rho &Rho; Ρ
rho &rho; ρ
Sigma &Sigma; Σ
sigma &sigma; σ
Tau &Tau; Τ
tau &tau; τ
Upsilon &Upsilon; Υ
upsilon &upsilon; υ
Phi &Phi; Φ
phi &phi; φ
Chi &Chi; Χ
chi &chi; χ
Psi &Psi; Ψ
psi &psi; ψ
Omega &Omega; Ω
omega &omega; ω
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